THE GREAT STEPPE IN THE WORLD OF CIVILIZATIONS

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Khussain Valiyev,
Doctor of technical sciences,
Professor, Academician

«I am convinced that the people who remember, value and are proud of their history have a great future. Pride of the past, pragmatic evaluation of the present and a positive outlook to the future – this is the key to the success of our country».

Nursultan NAZARBAYEV. «Seven facets of the Great Steppe».

PREFACE

On December 16, 1991 a new state appeared on the political map of the world – the Republic of Kazakhstan. This historic and great day of our country and our people was the beginning of a new era. The country for the first time in its many years of history has become the owner of all the power in its territory independently determining and conducting domestic and foreign policy. Under this date December 1 is the Day of the First President. This is a symbolic day in the history of the country, the same as the attributes of statehood – the Constitution, the Coat of Arms, the Flag and the Anthem. It is symbolic that both dates fall on December, because on those days historical documents were signed and it was during the severe time of mid-December that the events took place which afterward became harbingers of our independence, determined the place of the country, the nature of the development of society and the state as a whole in the global world of the 21st century. But all this was preceded by a whole historical epoch. Convincingly, it is scientifically deeply stated in the article by President Nursultan Nazarbayev «Seven Facets of the Great Steppe», which says: «There were many dramatic moments and tragedies in our history, wars and conflicts, socially dangerous experiments and political disasters. We have no right to forget about them. It is necessary to realize and accept our history».

IN THE EPOCH OF CHANGES

(according to the materials of the President’s Addresses to the people of Kazakhstan, full text)

One and a half thousand years ago in the center of a huge Eurasia arose the great empire of the ancient Turks, which then continued as powerful state unions that managed to conquer the territory from Byzantium to China. Since then our ancestors lived and we live today in Northern Eurasia almost without changing the boundaries. But for the global catastrophe at the beginning of the second millennium, connected with the invasion of the Mongolian nomads, the history of Kazakhstan would be different. But history has no subjunctive mood. The small Mongolian stratum was absorbed by the local population and the further history of the Golden, White and Blue Horde is, in fact, the history of the Turkic peoples. The last five centuries of national history is the history of the struggle for our living space. We should not look at our past as a chain of accidents. The pressure of a rapidly developing Europe and a growing China in the 16th-17th centuries led to a sharp narrowing of the possibilities of nomadic peoples and a turn of energy of these peoples towards mutual destruction. Thus the tragedy of the Kazakhs and the Dzungars was born. The stock of national energy turned out to be so great that we survived it and emerged victorious. It was then that a simple but eternal truth was realized – together we are invincible. It was then that the unifier of the people Ablai Khan with words and sword kept the nation between two hard forces pressing on the country from outside. However, this victory was temporary. We were in a period of historical lag. Being in the Russian Empire has proved that nomadism has lost its historical perspective. The tragedy was that time turned away from fearless nomads. At the beginning of the 20th century, for the first time in the centuries-old history, a real breakthrough into the big world appeared. This opportunity is connected with the names of the «Alash» figures. Another tragedy, the tragedy of totalitarianism, blocked almost a century of our history. As a result of direct and indirect losses, only Kazakhs lost about 40% of the population in a few years. Dozens of millions of Russians, Ukrainians, Jews died … It is time to understand that in the ethnic Apocalypse there is no fault of any nation, there is the logic of the system. The system did not even hesitate to stain hands with the blood of young people in the December snow of Almaty … Kazakhstan was born as a new state in an era that witnessed the end of many empires. We are building a new state, a new market economy and a new democracy at a time when many other independent countries have already gone through a similar path. We live in an era of growing globalization and growing interdependence, when external forces will play a significant role in determining our future. If we are serious in our intentions and smart, able to honestly analyze the internal and external factors of our development, then we have the opportunity to choose the right path – based on our common consolidation, our history and specific conditions. Under the influence of the transformation of our society, we all have changed unconsciously, getting used to a qualitatively different system of values and a new type of human relations. The replacement of the state-collective worldview by the privateindividualistic has changed every aspect of our life. Of course, the old system offered more reliable minimum social benefits and had achievements in a number of areas. However, we must not forget that this system disintegrated, because from the economic point of view it turned out to be uncompetitive. It lost in the social aspect, because the standard of living of most people lagged behind those living abroad. It also lost at the level of an individual person, because it refused freedom. Today we are a successful state that has its own face, its own characteristics and its position. Our main achievement is that we have created an independent Kazakhstan. We have made historically important constitutional and political reforms that have created a modern system of government based on the separation of branches of government. The new Kazakhstani patriotism is the basis of success of our multi-ethnic and multi-religious society. Our main goal in this direction is simple and clear: we must preserve and strengthen public consent. This is an indispensable condition of our existence as a state, as a society, as a nation. We are a multinational society. And in the issue of inter-ethnic relations there should be no double standards. We are building an equal opportunity society, a society where everyone is equal under the law. All those who are trying to drive a «wedge» into the interethnic consent of the nation must be prosecuted. And here a special responsibility lies with us, the Kazakhs. Kazakhstan is our land. This is a land that for centuries belonged to our ancestors. The land that will belong to our descendants. And we are responsible for ensuring peace and tranquility on our land. We must make progress, we must be worthy people and only then we will be respected, our history, culture, traditions and language will be respected too. Language policy is one of the main consolidating factors of the Kazakh nation. Kazakh language is our spiritual core. Our task is to develop it, actively using it in all spheres. This is the main diamond in the crown of the sovereignty of the country. Tradition and culture is the genetic code of a nation. The Kazakhs and the representatives of other nations living in the territory of our country, despite all the hardships and difficulties of tsarism, revolutionary upheavals and totalitarianism, managed to preserve their cultural identity. The main role in the spiritual development is always played by the intelligentsia. The intelligentsia must become the leading force in the consolidation of national values at the stage of a full-fledged state. We need to show and create new heroes of our time – those whom our young people should follow. The world has changed dramatically and is probably on the verge of even more powerful shifts. The instability in our region, the difficult situation of our neighbors affect the situation in Kazakhstan. Although one can say that we remain an island of stability and tranquility in global and regional crises, every Kazakhstani should understand the difficulty of the situation around us. We have created piece on all our borders, a kind of «security belt». No country in the world – no one! – is hostile to us. Our multilateral diplomacy and foreign policy successfully secured both our sovereignty and territorial integrity and created close relations with the world community. Now we have to confirm our loyalty to the intended goal. We must demonstrate that we have enough strength, vision and courage not to step off the road and build our new Kazakhstan on a solid foundation of political justice and economic freedom. Our country and society have changed greatly: economic and political rights and freedoms have become an indisputable fact of our reality. Kazakhstan is one of the few countries among the post-Soviet states that has managed to build stable relations with all countries without harming its strategic interests. The history of Central Asia in the second millennium showed that the peoples located in the center of the continent and not having access to world communications have no future. The fate of all the peoples of Central Asia depends on the main thing – if we will be able to become a transport channel of the world importance or be sidelined again. I strongly believe that this will be the best century in the history of Kazakhstan. The century that will become history as the century of creation and peace. There are some historical dates that make you look back not only to remember the past, but also to understand the future. If we treat history not as a simple collection of facts, but as a single stream of events with deep meaning and connection, then the scale and breath of these years become so tangible that the future of our future in the next century becomes clear. This connection between the past and the future of our young country can be expressed by a simple formula – an effective economy, a liberal society and national security. We cheerfully went to the bottom holding on to the huge foreign debts of the Soviet economy. The economy of poor counters has become the economy of empty counters. Money turned into well-cut paper. Thousands of enterprises have stopped, hundreds of thousands of people have been torn from their places. Our memory is selective and that real collapse of the economy today seems something fantastic from another life. It was necessary to act immediately. We launched privatization, created a completely different tax system, formed domestic entrepreneurship. We have created a modern banking system from the ground up. We have found our niche in a fierce competitive foreign market. We rebuilt the economic relations in rural areas. At the same time, we had a most difficult task to build our own statehood – from national armed forces to embassies in a number of countries around the world. We had to make painful reforms. The social cost of reforms, especially at the first stage, was high. The stakes were so high that the question was: to be or not to be an independent Kazakhstan? These were the years when the most important decisions were made, on which the further path of the state depended, when one wrong decision could significantly change the trajectory of the country. The world did not seem to be interested in us but our nuclear potential. We had a simple and clear goal – we wanted to live better, we wanted freedom, and even more we wanted the future of our children and grandchildren to be worthy. Today, the main issues center around the trade, economic cooperation and the development of regional integration. It is necessary to ensure the protection and promotion of national economic interests in the framework of international cooperation. It concerns, first of all, the work within the EEU, the SCO, interfacing with the Silk Road Economic Belt. Why should we restructure and strengthen the work of economic diplomacy? Kazakhstan today is at the turn of a new stage of socio-economic modernization and political democratization. The drivers of economic growth in Kazakhstan are new sectors of the economy, created in the framework of innovative industrialization. The economic behavior of Kazakhstanis is changing. Our most important task is to quickly stabilize the financial system and bring it in accordance with the new global reality. «Living within our income» is our reliable principle and correct model of fiscal policy, especially under the influence of the global crisis. The development of the world will take place against the background of fierce competition between the world and regional centers of power. We must oppose a strategy of actions based on our real capabilities to the challenges of a new global reality. The global crisis is not only a danger, but also new opportunities. Most global companies have become successful in crisis periods of development. Almost all the countries that have achieved success over the past half century started from scratch. And our Kazakhstan was born in a crisis epoch. The first decade is the most difficult period of Independence – we lived, basically, «without oil». Independent Kazakhstan has always developed in defiance of external economic elements. Was the first half of the 90s of the last century favorable for us when we declared our Independence? Production stopped, people lost their jobs and left without subsistence. We have adequately overcome this crisis step by step. As soon as our country began to feel the first results of change, a financial crisis arouse in Southeast Asia. We have developed and implemented two anti-crisis plans. This is our huge and successful experience in overcoming economic difficulties. We have already started the second five-year plan of industrial-innovative development, that is, we are creating an economy independent of raw materials. We have adopted the Nurly Zhol Program. An important aspect of anti-crisis measures is connected with the transition of the national currency of tenge to a floating exchange rate. The axiom of a new global reality is that only a diversified economy can effectively counter the effects of the global crisis. We need a new investment policy. It is important to attract private investment with a focus on transnational corporations. We must create a favorable environment for attracting «complex investments». Further reforms aimed at improving the investment climate should be carried out together with the OECD and other international financial institutions. We must cultivate new industries that are created using digital technologies. This is an important complex task. These industries have already changed the structure of the economies of developed countries and have given new quality to traditional industries. Alongside the creation of new industries, we should give a boost to the development of traditional basic industries. In the context of slowing global demand it is necessary to enter new markets and expand the geography of supply. The world is well aware of the reforms we have begun. These reforms, as well as the implementation of the related tasks, will be difficult and perhaps even painful. But they have no alternative. If we do not do all this, we will hopelessly lag behind world development. The changes taking place in the world under the influence of the prolonged global crisis do not frighten us. We are ready for them. Now our task is to preserve everything we have achieved over the years of sovereignty, to continue sustainable development in the 21st century. Our voice must be heard all over the world. No country in the world can overcome alone the challenges of the coming epoch. The world has become unstable. The leading powers imposed sanctions against each other and lost trust. Instability and conflicts in the region of the Near and Middle East, North and Central Africa led to large-scale flows of refugees. Every day brings reports of terrorist acts and the deaths of dozens of people. International terrorism now poses a serious threat to the world. This is the result of the breakdown of statehood through intervening external forces in the internal affairs of sovereign states. The development of the world will take place against the background of fierce competition between the world and regional centers of power. We must oppose a holistic strategy of actions based on our real capabilities to the challenges of global reality. Today, the world is entering the era of the fourth industrial revolution, an era of profound and rapid changes: technological, economic and social. A new technological structure radically changes the way we work, we realize our civil rights, we raise children. The need to be ready for global changes and challenges prompted us to adopt the Development Strategy «Kazakhstan-2050». The National Plan 100 steps is being implemented now. The Industrialization Program is successfully being implemented as well. A comprehensive program «Digital Kazakhstan» has been adopted. It is necessary to create a new model of economic growth that will ensure the global competitiveness of the country. Modernization is not a plan to struggle against current global challenges, but a reliable bridge to the future, towards the goals of the Kazakhstan-2050 Strategy.

INDEPENDENCE STRATEGY ON THE WAY OF PROGRESS

At present, we see that the processes of objective transformation of countries into a global interconnected system are taking place on earth which challenges of a planetwide arise for requiring their effective solution from humanity. Today, in all these aspects the Republic of Kazakhstan – a country born of independence – has all the attributes and ambitions of a successful state recognized in the world and having high prestige in the global community. In the most difficult years the head of state N. Nazarbayev took the responsibility and heavy burden to form and develop the country. He as an experienced captain through the reefs and storms of the global community leads the country’s general ship to prosperity and wealth with peace and harmony, sustainable development and stability. The head of state in one of his speeches said that in fact, Kazakhstan had experienced several very deep crises: «The first, largest and hardest is the collapse of the USSR. Kazakhstan remained as a piece of a collapsed empire with an absolutely broken economy. We had been working for 5-6 years to restore the statehood, establish a new system of internal and foreign policy, just to make the economy work. It is difficult now to imagine the first years of the independent existence of the country. Total deficit, hyperinflation, production even if it worked, only within its own survival, in the social sphere there was complete depression. The President says: «I will tell you today that at the beginning of the 90s we were standing at the edge of the abyss.» The situation was further aggravated by the exacerbation of social problems that could provoke interethnic conflicts. There emerged a trend of the non-indigenous population «outflow» from the country against the background of a declining economy, which was based on military-industrial complex enterprises and powerful industrial giants that could not work with the broken ties of the former union cooperation. The time and a new system of relationships, first of all, required changes. It was impossible to live as we used to. We needed system transformations and then it was necessary to determine the long-term strategy. But first it was necessary to take a set of management measures to form a fundamentally new system of government. The presidential form of government should be filled with real content with a clear definition of the boundaries of its powers, legislative and executive authorities as well as relations between the center and regions. It was necessary to urgently adopt the concept of economic reforms, launching and using market principles. At the same time, the national aspects could not be overlooked. The defense problems of the country were waiting for their decision. It was only a small part of issues that required the quickest solution. Only a thought-out presidential power that would consolidate all branches of the state structure could launch and then ensure the effectiveness of this mechanism. But it was necessary to somehow «remove» the old personnel accustomed to the old principles of leadership. It is no coincidence that at the conference of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev said: «The work on dismantling the nomenclature mechanism should be continued. This is eliminating of any kind of dictatorship, imposition of candidates, administration in personnel placement … We need the executive office, but it should be updated and able to fulfill its functions efficiently». This was a responsible statement. The time and the situation in the country required the country’s transition to market mechanisms. Now we can state that in this corner of the planet an economically prosperous state took place, which was not on the political map of the world before. This is the historically main achievement. The diplomacy of the head of state, the art of communicating with world leaders, assertiveness and tact provided the country with reliable and unshakable borders. The nuclear potential elimination of the Semipalatinsk test site contributed to the worldwide recognition of the country. Speaking about the moral and human qualities of the President and his political foresight, it is necessary to refer to the words in which he justified the need to close the test site: «We simply do not have the moral right to continue destroying our people and land with nuclear explosions.» Pragmatic actions to abandon nuclear weapons have provided the country global recognition, security guarantees, technical assistance and investment. At the same time, the country possessing the second largest reserves of uranium and having earned the trust of the world community in the non-proliferation of nuclear potential is becoming the key commercial player in the world market and a political player in the peaceful use of the atom. In general, this tactic has justified itself, the result of which was a memorandum signed by Russia, the United States, Great Britain, and then China and France, the essence of which is a guarantee to Kazakhstan in rendering immediate assistance if the country becomes the object of aggression. One of the main and initial documents mentioned in the Message of the President to the people of the country «Prosperity, security and improvement of the welfare of all Kazakhstanis» was the Development Strategy of the country until 2030. It specified the long-term path of development of an independent republic, aimed at making the country one of the safest, most stable and economically developed countries in the world. No one has ever looked so far. At first it was perceived by society with a certain distrust and skepticism. Bu the time shows how the head of state was right. In the new century the OSCE summit has become the most important event of the millennium not only for our country but also in the history of the organization itself. At the end of the summit the Astana Declaration «Towards the Security Community in the 21st Century» was adopted. It states the joint responsibility for the development of the organization enhancing its role in strengthening security and cooperation. This document has become a strong basis for the further development of the OSCE since it reflects the common position of the participating states. After Helsinki and Paris, a new phase of cooperation appeared under the spirit of Astana – the main city of our country which has celebrated its 20th anniversary this year. Everything was different at the beginning. The head of state writes in the «Kazakhstan’s Way» book: «I must confess I am not good at poetry but when I recalled the process of transferring the capital from Almaty to Astana, the only line from Olzhas Suleimenov’s verses always came to my mind: «To elevate the steppe and not humiliate mountains». For me this line has acquired a completely new meaning. We have set such a difficult task: to build a new capital in the steppe while preserving the beautiful city in the foothills of Alatau. « Today Astana is the only capital of the new century which was built for such a short period of time and Kazakhstan is the only country that built a new city at the turn of the century. Having built the capital of a new state in the immense steppe, the president implemented the project unprecedented in our part of the world. It would seem that at the dawn of independence when the head of state had to solve the global tasks connected with the development of the country, he showed foresight and took an important decision for the country. The development of the new capital has greatly changed the whole country, turned it into an economically strong and politically stable state. The constant attention and care of the president of the development of Astana ensured its transformation into a dynamically developing metropolis, a modern and competitive city of Eurasia. «Astana is the creation of the whole Kazakhstan. All the regions took part in its construction and today people from all the regions live here. Together we made a miracle in the 21st century. Never in the history of mankind have such cities been built in 20 years. And we did it!», said Nursultan Nazarbayev.
I cannot but mention the words of John Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church during his visit to Astana: «I thank God who guided my steps right up to the city of Astana, the capital of this noble and boundless country located in the heart of Eurasia. I am excited to kiss this land which laid the foundation of a multi-ethnic state, the heir of the centuries-old diverse spiritual and cultural traditions. God bless you, Kazakhstan, and all your inhabitants and give you the future of harmony and peace. « The state has a huge and responsible task. This is the task of national competitiveness. The world is constantly moving forward, and we must not lag behind in order to hold on to our conquered positions. Therefore, it is important to do our best so that the life and fate of the younger generation could be our top priority. Even at the dawn of independence, the president spoke about the necessity to create a system of early identification of talents, their step-by-step development from kindergarten to higher education. The time has come, our financial and social opportunities allowed us to launch intellectual schools of the First President for gifted children. «Nazarbayev University» occupies a special place in the system of higher education – a new page in our life designed to become a model of modern management in Kazakhstan’s education and one of the main components of the country’s innovative and technological breakthrough in the new century. Not so much time has passed since the Bolashak scholarship was established. The younger generation does not remember how difficult the period for the country was in the 90s. The collapse of the economy and the political system. Therefore, the decision to establish a scholarship at such a difficult time in economic and political terms was not an easy step for the president. An unprecedented humanitarian action in the history of Kazakhstan was the «Cultural Heritage» program, now the «Rukhani Zhangyru» (Spiritual revival) Program initiated by the head of state and which has become a priority of cultural policy. Spirituality and morality, their development and level are the attributes of any selfsufficient state and any person. The years of independence clearly showed the attitude of the people to the national history and cultural heritage of the country. The richness and diversity of our culture are the basis of a civilized society which with great attention treats the problems of preserving and using its history and centuries-old traditions. At its core this is a materialized memory of a past time and a memory of people oriented towards our future. High culture is an indicator of the progress of a nation. The country is working on scientific research, the collection of artifacts and books related to the history of the state and the restoration of cultural monuments. Masterpieces of world culture and classical scientific literature are being translated into Kazakh, for example, the «100 books and textbooks» program. In general, cultural, literary and art workers are able to identify new spiritual guidelines in the life of society. They are able to inspire people with ideas, enthusiasm, desire for new achievements. Essentially, they are the «masters of minds.» It is no coincidence that the head of state, analyzing the past, the present and defining ways of developing the future, notes that «for the first time, the Kazakh self-consciousness has the opportunity to understand its national identity in the past, the future – in the stream of history not hanging in the historical non-existence. It should not go unmentioned the role of the congresses of world and traditional religions held in our country which are increasingly being transformed into a broad dialogue platform for consolidating worldwide the best spiritual origins laid down in each religious movement. It is no coincidence that in the 111th US Congress, the House of Representatives unanimously adopted a resolution expressing gratitude and recognition to the congresses of world and traditional religions, the principles of which were reasonable compromise and spiritual harmony. At the same time, the positive role of our state which set an example for other countries was designated. Kazakhstan being located in the heart of Eurasia becomes a unique bridge between the West and the East, the North and the South spreading the best values
of human development and spirituality. It is noteworthy that in recent years many good traditions related to ethnic, linguistic and cultural tolerance have been developed and consolidated in the country. Probably, these features are deeply predetermined by the vastness of the Great Steppe – there is enough space for everyone and there is no sense in exalting ourselves to humiliate someone nearby. Therefore, interethnic harmony has been and remains the cornerstone of stability – the political, economic and spiritual development of society. It is directly connected with instilling high moral and ethical qualities in citizens. Peace and harmony of nations are the wings of our unity, stability and prosperity. It is a vital resource like oil, metals, grain, and earth. Finally, it is our national treasure and should be treated carefully as the most cherished and expensive. The preservation of historical memory, the formation of a wide world-view, the growing interest in its deep «roots» is becoming increasingly important in our society. Because the «genotype» of future generations, their creative initiative, patriotism and national identity largely depend on this. At the same time, interethnic concord and tolerance of the people of Kazakhstan which determined the national idea of «Mangilik el» brought it to a qualitatively new level. Our great achievements on the way of the formation of the state reflected in the Declaration of the 25th anniversary of the country’s independence are associated primarily with the name of the President and the entire Kazakhstani society. Generosity, diligence and respect, mentality and tolerance have always characterized the Kazakh people. These features have been incorporated in them genetically by nature itself and brought up in the process of its formation and development. In the spirit of time may the state be reputable and wise, intellectual, forming a nation in our strong multinational country. At the same time, under no circumstances nor over time will it be possible to break the thread and measure of responsibility towards each other in the centuries-old and recent history of the present and future Kazakhstan. I would like to convey the character of the unique historical chance and responsibility in reviving the country that has befallen our nation, its achievements now and in the future with the words «Төрле, Мəнгілік Ел!», representing the composite image of the entire Kazakhstan people and its centuries-old history. This phrase has a broad and deep meaning associated primarily with the revival of the Kazakh nation and the emergence of a new «ethnos» – the Kazakhstani people, which is a new milestone in the modern history of the country. It is symbolic in this sense that the preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan begins with the words: «We are the people of Kazakhstan …».

IN THE FORMAT OF NEW INITIATIVES

A new page in the history of the state that has passed through the trials of the postSoviet chaos and crises but at the same time preserving the national economy and public concord is undoubtedly the Strategy «Kazakhstan-2050». This is a continuation of the systemic reforms in the country in the context of global development, in the implementation of which the President sees: «… this is a state with a strong economy, where everything is done for people. Where citizens are free and equal, power is fair. There is the rule of law … «. Besides, Strategy is philosophy and policy, economy and society, it is an analysis and detailed study of realities and prospects. This is a concentrated new vision of the new century. It formulates the construction of the development of a reasonable and efficient society in the current century. At the same time, the country like other states more than needs a format of global dialogue and partnership – a format from the «geopolitical mathematics» of the 21st century. Within the framework of global processes, the world community is now reaching a high level of its historical development in which a new category of community of people is being formed. Today, the common task of our society is not to lose what has been achieved, to increase our spiritual, political and economic potential to an even greater degree so that everything can then be passed on to future generations. The modern world is in a constant search for optimal conditions for the dialogue of civilizations and the constructive partnership of states that exist in its various forms and manifestations. The UN, OSCE, OIC, BRICS, G20, G8, World Forum on Sustainable Development «RIO», international economic, environmental forums and congresses are the components of the prospects for the process of global integration. In this context, the interaction within the SCO, CICMA, CIS, CSTO, EAEU, etc. has undoubted significance for the states of the post-Soviet space – structures that operate effectively and provide an opportunity to collectively resist, including external economic, political, military, informational and other threats. These associations have gained some positive experience, but the potential for interaction in them is far from exhausted. Integration processes are expanding and deepening. There are continental and intercontinental communities – the subjects of the process of «integration of integrations» at the geographical, economic and political level. There are already examples: in North America it is the partnership of the USA and Canada, on the European part of the Eurasian continent – the EU, Asian – the SCO and between the continents – the UN, OSCE, BRICS. These efforts are being made in the world to prevent an explosion of contradictions worldwide, to prevent the world from going into a deep abyss – when the very existence of human civilization is put on the scales.
Kazakhstan within the period of independent development has passed the difficult path of the establishment of statehood and reached the highest positions in the world. The country has become a venue for major significant international events. They are the election of a state as a member of the UN Security Council for the next two years, OSCE summits, OIC, world economic forums and congresses, congresses of the world leaders and traditional religions, fruitful cooperation in the format of international organizations, defining a country as a platform for negotiations on the Syrian issue.
The term, small by historical standards, does not allow for the time being to make global generalizations. But today it is obvious that the course of reforms and the strategy of the state were the only true ones, therefore it is worthwhile to discuss only the effectiveness of the implementation mechanisms. We can discuss a lot about the social consequences of transformations, their high price for the population and certain industries that are to some extent not ready for the market. But in those states where they passed smoothly to it, there were no less problems and they still had to complete many reforms. It is quite logical that modern Kazakhstan in terms of economy, politics and geopolitics adheres to the guidelines of a multi-vector state following the advantages and experience of American, European and Asian approaches. For example, creating the Eurasian Economic Union on the initiative of N. Nazarbayev which is based on 5 main principles. This is economic pragmatism, respect for sovereignty, voluntary integration, equality in making all decisions, evolutionary development, openness of the Eurasian space. In addition, the states of this union have quite common historical roots, a single language of international communication and mentality as well as almost similar problems which cannot be fully overcome by any of the CIS countries alone. In general, Eurasian integration is a way to overcome the continental isolation of the region, the full involvement of national economies in world economic relations and international trade. Kazakhstan has entered the integration of the EAEU having the second largest economy in the post-Soviet space. The country attracted a big part of all foreign investments in Central Asia. At the same time, Kazakhstan’s economy, having doubled, today exceeds the total volume of economies of all countries of this region. There is one more important factor. At the 70th anniversary session of the UN General Assembly, President Nursultan Nazarbayev during a general debate took a number of initiatives to transform the modern world order. A step towards the practical implementation of global initiatives is his proposal to reformat the EU, the EAEU and ideas about the economic belt of the Great Silk Road into the 21st century integration project «Big Eurasia». At the same time, the work of the Astana International Financial Center with a high-tech base component created on the basis of the infrastructure of EXPO-2017 will be a great help for its implementation. This is one of the points of the presidential program «Plan of the Nation – 100 Steps to Implement Five Institutional Reforms». The main strategic directions for the development of the center will be the capital market, asset management, Islamic finance and green finance, innovative financial technologies. Besides, the center will become a kind of financial gateway to the Silk Road. «Today large-scale structural and institutional reforms are being implemented in the country. They are aimed at improving the competitiveness and Kazakhstan’s entry into the top 30 developed countries of the world» N. Nazarbayev said about its creation. It should be noted that the beginning of the new century was marked not only by the latest technological, but also by global industrial and environmental breakthroughs. The global threats include regular economic crises that confirm the mutual ties and dependencies of all in the world community. Disproportions between countries continue to grow. At the same time, against the background of ecological disasters, an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases is observed. Over the past 20 years, their number has increased by 30% and has reached the critical level of an increase in global temperature by more than two degrees Celsius. Experts estimate that the planet cannot cope with the «appetites» of humanity, which greedily consumes the resources of forests, rivers, seas, air and the whole earth, that at present we need two planets. The world community uses natural resources 1.7 times faster than the earth is able to reproduce it, so we can talk about a certain global debt of our time to the future of humanity. «Among the most burning problems for all mankind is the energy and environmental crisis, which has cast doubt on the possibility of creating a balanced energy security and environmental conservation,» said Nursultan Nazarbayev, it is our common task which must be solved by the entire world community. As is known, in 1992 the Earth Summit was held for the first time in Rio de Janeiro. Its participants adopted the «Agenda for the 21st Century» to promote which in 1997 the UN General Assembly held a special session of RIO + 5. In 2002 Johannesburg hosted a RIO + 10 conference called the World Summit on Sustainable Development. In 2012 in Rio de Janeiro the UN World Conference on Sustainable Development of the RIO + 20 global community took place under the title «The Future We Want». Obviously, in search for the answers to these questions there is a need to create a common scenario for the safe energy and environmental development of the planet for the transition to a qualitatively new world order. In this context Kazakhstan proposed the «Global Energy Strategy for Sustainable Development in the 21st Century», which became, in fact, the basic component of EXPO-2017, which received a huge positive response in the world. In order to promote Kazakhstan’s strategy at RIO + 20, our country took part in a number of civilizational forums, held business meetings with the Organization of Islamic Cooperation group, preliminary negotiations and consultations with the European Union (represented by the European Economic Commission) and other countries. In addition, it will be logical to dwell on the RIO + 20 final document which reflects the initiatives of the head of state related to the global problems of energy, environment and the «Green Bridge» initiative. This is a great achievement for our country, at such a high negotiation the decision is made on the basis of consensus and it is the «fruit of compromise» of all participants, these are 198 countries of the world. Furthermore, it should be noted that after the events in Japan, people’s feelings about atomic energy shifted to the side, even to the point of abandoning it. But humanity is aware of the enormous potential of the «peaceful» atom. The summits in Kiev and Seoul on nuclear issues showed the key role of the United States, Russia and Kazakhstan in this direction. The next World Forum RIO + 30 will be held in 2022. In this regard, it is proposed to discuss the possibility of holding it in Astana. Firstly, Kazakhstan has reached the highest positions and ratings in the modern world. The effective policy of our country, its impressive achievements in the fields of activity of the world community, high authority and image allow us to hold such an important event. Secondly, the initiative of N.Nazarbayev on the global energy strategy has become the basic component of the UN proposal «Sustainable Energy for All». This program is the main link to realize the concept of the transition to a green economy in the world as the main core for creating conditions for the sustainability of the world community. Thirdly, the first United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, as it is known, was held in Europe. The second is in America, the third is in Africa, the fourth is again in America. It is therefore logical to hold the next conference in Asia where currently more than 60% of the total population of the planet lives. In addition, when forming the agenda of the RIO + 30 World Summit, it would be advisable to include the important initiatives by the head of state presented at the UN which is a set of vital global issues for the whole world. It would be quite logical to consider the issues of the scientific foundations of the development strategy, forecasting and identifying new threats, anticipating adjustments for the world community to reach an effective mutually beneficial partnership. In general, all these proposals can become part of the «New Future» concept as steps to implement the Global Strategic Initiative Plan – 2045 for the UN anniversary suggested by Nursultan Nazarbayev. This will give the world a new development trend based on the access of all to the global infrastructure, resources and markets, and as a result – universal responsibility for the effective development of humanity on the planet. Furthermore, he spoke about the initiative to convene a summit conference to confirm the basic principles of international law and define priorities for the comprehensive coordination of global approaches to the partnership of civilizations and states. Thus, a global strategy and global ethics are necessary for the global age. At the same time, a comprehensive global document, a set of spirituality and harmony, a world budget with a single monetary and financial policy could become the basic «points of support» of a kind of pyramid of the world order on the planet. Undoubtedly, in this context the whole world pays attention to the personality of Nursultan Nazarbayev and, in general, Kazakhstan, to whom international politicians and experts predict a bright future. Therefore, they talk a lot about the head of our state, write books about him and produce films. It is logical and absolutely true, since the biography of our leader is extraordinary. He, like our country, is at a peculiar downstage of the actions of the world community. Without a doubt, the basis of the take-off in the biography of Nursultan Nazarbayev is his profession of engineer-metallurgist. It is associated with the unusual for many seemingly «unchecked» and dangerous force of fire, high temperatures and complex technological processes of smelting and rolling. All this made by creative engineering thought initially tested the young Nursultan for strength and then formed in him spiritual strength, firmness of character, flexibility, logic and practicality. In fact, the fire of the metallurgist profession has become a huge source of energy for the fire of the heart, soul and thoughts of his bright life. The extraordinary personality of Nursultan Nazarbayev also lies in the fact that the wisdom of the East and the dynamism of the West are initially present in it. He absorbed not only the characteristic features of two epochs, but also all the current world processes. It is shown in his creative actions and the persistence with which he conducts an independent, effective, world-recognized integration policy. At the same time, it is not a bit inferior in matters of preserving the sovereignty and constitutional statehood of the country. We can say that the head of state is a rare and happy politician at the global level. He knows that the world cannot be one-dimensional, and its many-facetedness forces humanity to partnership, first of all, through unifying the intellectual possibilities of civilization. Thus, he makes great efforts, knowledge and skills. The country’s president is a leader who combines high intelligence with practical wisdom and healthy pragmatism. His credo is not to adapt to political processes but to find reasonable compromises and build a perspective controlling them. A priori the historical mission of creating and strengthening the foundations of Kazakhstan belongs to the First President – Leader of the Nation Nursultan Nazarbayev. He created and fostered the main and strong values that unite and constitute the foundation of the future of our country. In general, under his leadership over the years of independence large-scale political, economic, legal and social reforms were carried out. As the founder of Kazakhstani statehood the president has become the author of global initiatives that have received recognition from Kazakhstan and the respect of the international community. One of these major initiatives is the Digital Kazakhstan Program. As you know, the creation of the digital industry in the world was the subject of much discussion at the Astana Economic Forum designated among the five planetary megatrends which will be a continuation of discussions and analytics of the Global Challenges Summit forum at our conference. As it has been mentioned, on the threshold of the two significant dates in the modern history of Kazakhstan A. Baitursynov Kostanay State University will host an international scientific conference: «IT-INTELLIGENCE AND DIGITAL INDUSTRY – KEY DRIVERS OF ECONOMY». According to the professor at Columbia University and the chief economic adviser to the Davos Forum Javier Sala-I-Martin: «… the fourth industrial revolution experienced by mankind can be the motherland of all revolutions since the previous ones used machines to replace human beings and animals. Today it concerns the human mind … «. How the global labor market will change, whether robots will «win» people and how traditional industries will work in the new world – the questions that need answers now. At the same time, the reference point on the main value is the man of society.
In this context, the conference will consider issues related to the world and domestic experience in creating and developing the digital industry and the modernization of the spiritual level of society. The focus will be made on assessing the prospects for the development of the IT intelligence of society and digital technologies for further accelerated growth of the economy of Kazakhstan. There are 4 directions for discussion. The first one. Kazakhstani society in the context of the 4th technological revolution: the country and digital content-time to create benefits; human and artificial intelligence – partnership or confrontation; spiritual and moral capital in the framework of the «Rukhani zhangyru» Program. The second one. The experience of foreign countries in creating a digital industry and the prospects for its use in Kazakhstan: the digital economy in the world – the state and opportunities; digital way of the state (transfer of world experience in the national context); the main priorities of the Digital Kazakhstan Program and the dynamics of its development in the country. The third one. Implementation of the Digital Kazakhstan Program in Kostanay region: public sector – «Government for citizens»; IT-technologies and digital content in education and science, the provision of socio-cultural services; business environment and innovative production in a digital technology system. The fourth one. Personnel training for the digital economy of the country: the concept of development of the ITintelligence of society; programs of graduate and post-graduate training (retraining) of personnel in the framework of «lifelong learning». «The widespread digitalization of the economy will lead to the disappearance of sectors and the creation of fundamentally new ones. The great changes taking place before our eyes are both a historical challenge and a chance for the nation … It is necessary to create a new model of economic growth that will ensure the global competitiveness of the country», President N.Nazarbayev addressed to the nation encouraging to involve in the process of the formation and implementation of strategic decisions in economy.

CONCLUSION

Тhe modern world order is the world of the «era of changes» characterized by dynamism and comprehensive technology of the infrastructure of our life which penetrates into all the spheres of the life of society and therefore having every possible influence on political, legal, ecological and socio-economic processes across the globe. Kazakhstan in the framework of the implementation of innovative-industrial development and spiritual modernization of the society «Rukhani zhangyru» is increasingly involved in these trends. At the same time, showing the world a kind of «top class» the result of which are high achievements and the great authority of the republic and the leader of the nation N.Nazarbayev on the path to the progress in the future of our country in the new history of the 21st century. This is the centuries-old dream of our glorious ancestors and the people of Kazakhstan embodied in the national idea – МƏҢГІЛІК ЕЛ (the Eternal country)!

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