THE MEANING OF THE IMPLICITED AUTHOR IN THE TALES OF R. KIPLING AND D.N. MAMIN-SIBIRYAK

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Мереке Уюкбаева,
кандидат филологических наук,
профессор КазНПУ им. Абая

Аннотация
Данная статья исследует проблему имплицитного автора в сказках Р. Киплинга и Д. Н. Мамина-Сибиряка. Имплицитный автор в данных произведениях способствует созданию особого стиля, неповторимого художественного своеобразия, узнаваемости. У Киплинга и Мамина-Сибиряка этот автор представлен по-разному, что вызывает особый интерес для изучения. Оба автора большое внимание в своих сказках уделяли изображению животных, но каждый из них по-своему изображал этих персонажей с помощью имплицитного автора. Это помогло им наиболее ярко выразить в текстах коллизии и создать запоминающиеся образы животных и птиц, наделенных с помощью олицетворения человеческой речью и мышлением.

The implicit author is «a narrative instance not embodied in the artistic text and has no form of a character-narrator and recreated by the reader in the process of reading as implied». An implicit author is only a structural principle that organizes all the means of narration, including the narrator. «In the works of Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak, the implicit author appears constantly and serves the realization of author’s ideas. The value of the author’s idea in the context of the work of art is not fully understood. For example, L. I. Timofeev wrote: «An analysis of the author’s ideological evaluation of life depicted in the work is necessary, but not sufficient». Thus, rightly emphasizing that it is necessary to distinguish the author’s idea that he depicts and what happened in the reality. In addition, in connection with this, he singles out the «author’s idea» and the «objective idea». Moreover, the concept of postmodernism in general is based on the definition of «author’s death», introduced by Maurice Blanche. Here is what Sh. Abdullayev writes about this: «With regard to Maurice Blanchot’s definition of the author’s» death, «it should be said that it does not mean the end of an ineradicable individual essence, but simply offers a complete normal attitude to the creative figure, which after the tyranny of the norms of the positivistic era does not dare to be in the atmosphere of the canonical anomaly. This is a kind of attempt to bring the «name» beyond the brackets of the persistent threats of literary conventions to the clumsy humus of dense life – a spontaneous desire to transplant it into a chaotic soil of laboriously disorderly and hallucinatory anonymity. «The very concept of postmodernism has no uniqueness in contemporary literary criticism. Here, for example, another definition of postmodernism: «Postmodernism is a term for characterizing the contemporary literary and general cultural situation, a complex set of philosophical attitudes and cultural reactions, oriented towards the concept of peace as chaos, devoiding of logic and cause-effect relationships. In the literature this concept is projected onto stylistics. Postmodernists use the method of «play», multi-level text organization, various time shifts, use the layers of culture of previous times as a supporting material for their works, which leads to external randomness, total citation, intertextuality. «Unlike postmodernists, Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak used the traditional methods of introducing an implicit author into the artistic text; they did not live to the author’s «death», characteristic of postmodernists with their revolutionary approach to the art of speech and the theory of literature. In fairy tales of Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak, the implicit author exists as a full-fledged character and carries a certain semantic load depending on the context. This is natural for works addressed to children. Because children’s fairy tales are full of surprises and including not announced characters in advance. This creates a special atmosphere of confidence, superfluous proof of author’s ideas. The implicit author in the fairy tales of Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak is a kind of magician, emerging from the structure of the artistic text and being his inseparable part. So, for example, in Kipling’s fairy tale «Where does Kita get such a sip», at the beginning the appeal sounds: «It was a long time ago, my dear boy» – it is just the appearance of an implicit author who prefers to have a child. The whole narrative of this tale is intended for children to tell an interesting story about how a person could not only subordinate the will of Kit with his cunning and resourcefulness, but also form a new anatomical structure of the pharynx of Kit: put a great on so that Kit could no longer swallow people. In this fairy tale, as in all others, man’s superiority over animals is emphasized: a man is smarter, braver than all, and he is rightfully the crown of nature. This idea is closely related to Kipling’s imperial and colonial views: «The truth of the image of India was combined with the glorification of the British Empire, their idea of the superiority of the white man. Kipling regarded the colonialist policy of England as a boon for backward peoples. «Moreover, according to Anikin G.V., it was his erroneous worldview that led to infertility, so he went on to say: «Kipling took part in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899–1902, defending the interests of the British Empire. The preaching of imperialist ideas had a detrimental effect on the writer’s creative activity since the beginning of the twentieth century. He could no longer create anything artistically valuable. «Other researchers even more thoroughly analyzed Kipling’s misconceptions, his anti-human political principles: «Kipling is characterized by the exaltation of all types and stages of colonization – piracy, the activities of punitive detachments, and the activities of spies. Racism and colonialism are justified in the «Ballad of East and West» – in a persistently repeated saying: «Oh, the West is the West, the East is the East, and together they will not converge». However, not all critics agree on Kipling’s fairy tales. Some, on the contrary, consider Kipling’s fairy tales to be devoid of politicization: «The most enduring popularity was obtained precisely by those works where the reactionary tendency manifests itself either in incomplete and indirect form or not at all, primarily the Jungle Book and fairy tales». The very fact of constant appeal to children testifies to respect for small readers and the targeted orientation of his tales. In this case, children are impressed by the serious attitude to them and the global problems of Kipling’s fairy tales. It is fairly noted that: «As a children’s writer, Kipling appears before us as the creator of a new trend in English children’s literature. Before a child reader he poses non-childish, serious questions, the final solution of which is still far ahead. But think about them from childhood – this is what Kipling achieved with his fairy tales and the «Book of the Jungle». Kipling’s talent is undeniable and recognized throughout the world. And his tales, despite his edification, are highly artistic works. One cannot but agree with the statement: «Despite certain nationalistic Victorian moods of Kipling, about which A. Kuprin wrote in his article» Rudyard Kipling, «his writing talent created him worldwide fame». This opinion is also shared by D. Urnov, who said: «In the future, the same opinion is strengthened: whatever it is that Kipling cannot think about, no matter how he perceives the spirit of his work», he writes, «ironically». The tale «Why the Camel’s Hump» in the beginning also creates an image of an implicit author who takes on the role of a friend of children and an enlightener: «Here is another fairy tale, and in it I want to tell where the big hump came from on the back of the Camel. In the very first years, long ago, the whole earth was new, just made». Kipling always took into account the peculiarities of the age perception of works of art. The language and style of his children’s fairy tales is laconic, accessible. The author operates concepts accessible to children and as if invites them to co-authors of the work, and even of the universe itself, when everything has just appeared. So in the fairy tale «Elephant» the traditional treatment creates an atmosphere of special confidence: «It’s only now, my dear boy, the Elephant has a trunk. And before, long ago, no elephant had any trunk. There was only a nose, like a cake, black and as big as a shoe. «The narrator as an implicit author in Kipling’s fairy tales always tries to be as close to the readers as possible – to the children, their friend and mentor. Therefore, Kipling’s tales are simultaneously educational, informative, entertaining. In this case, the special English humor of the writer, which manifests it both in comparisons and in events occurring in fairy tales, is of great importance. And in the fairy tale «Where did the Battleships come from?» The narrator not only begins it with an appeal that is traditional for Kipling’s fairy tales: «Dear Boy, I will tell you again a fairy tale about the Far and Old Times», but he ends this work by referring to an imaginary reader: «What to you still, the lovely boy? Everything was fine, was not it?» Thus, the narrator not only asserts the truth of his assumptions about the appearance of armadillos, but also as if seeking support from his small readers, forcing them to think about what they read. It is this form of direct appeals and questions to the readership that establishes a close contact between the narrator and the children for whom these amazing tales were created. It is in this way that an implicit author is created in Kipling’s fairy tales, recreated by the reader in the process of reading as implied and as a special structural principle that organizes narrative tools, including the narrator himself. The tale «A Cat Walking by Itself» has an ordinary Kipling origin – an appeal: «Listen, my dear boy, listen, listen, understand, because it happened, because it happened, because it was still at that far time when Hand Animals were Animals Wild. «Kipling actively and creatively used Indian and English folklore traditions. In this case, with the help of repetitions, he strengthened the meaning of the beginning, focusing on it the attention of readers and demanding from them not only attention, but also understanding. In the fairy tale «How it was written the first letter» there is no reference to the reader, she has a traditional beginning, an exposition: «Once upon a time, back in the Stone Age, there was only one person». The narrator here creates a link between the narrative time and the present, describing the habits of the primitive girl Taffy and the current girls, who are similar to her in one thing: «quietly playing somewhere near to the pope – quite like Taffy». Thus the implicit author manages to exist at once in two times, and also has the possibility of comparing them. In the fairy tale «Rikki-Tikki-Tavi» there is also no direct appeal to the child-listener. Here everything is concentrated on the exciting struggle of the young mongoose with snakes. The activity of the narrator, the richness of the text by dangerous events in themselves attracts the close attention of children, fascinated by the unusualness of what is happening. And in the fairy tale «The Moth That Stamped the Foot» with the help of the appeal to the readers, the unusualness of this work is emphasized, its special significance: «There you are, my dear boy, a new fairy tale – very special, unlike everyone else – a fairy tale about the wisest king Suleymane-ibn-Daudeh-of Solomon, the son of David». With the help of a comical antithesis, the author showed the same position, in which the powerful Solomon and the fragile moth appeared: both of them suffered from grumpy wives. The writer held an ironic analogy between the wisest ruler and the butterfly, equally powerless before the quarrelsome wives. And the question at the end of the fairy tale «Is not it true, Balikida acted wisely?» Is both an affirmation and a question addressed to readers. The wise queen of Balkydia was able to solve the common problem to everyone’s joy. And although this fairy tale is full of magic, but the main thing in it is the problem of interpersonal relations, the need for peace and tranquility in every family. The most famous fairy tale Kipling – about Mowgli, who grew up among wild animals and took from them all only the best. Precisely because Mowgli grew up so noble, honest, brave he has no place in human society. The first experience of returning to people, mercenary, stupid, insolent was unsuccessful, and Mowgli, with the help of his savage brethren, destroyed the village that drove him out of the face of the earth. But this did not lessen his craving for people. The narrator constantly emphasizes Mowgli’s superiority over all animals. He is the master of the jungle, but he is drawn to people. Paradox, but his happiest days Mowgli spent among the animals who loved him unselfishly and faithfully. Mowgli is an example of education outside of civilization. Kipling showed an amazing phenomenon of moral and moral perfection of the hero, not spoiled by the self-interest of civilized people, their false ideas and unjustified ambitions. It was wild animals that taught Mowgli to love, to keep a word, and also courage and courtesy. Mowgli could find a common language with all animals, whereas people (other than his mother Messua) aroused his disdain and disgust with his meanness and talkativeness. Mowgli is a special type of personality, free from prejudice, emphasizing by its virtue repelling public vices. Kipling portrayed the world of people and the world of the inhabitants of the jungle. And the comparison was not in favor of the former. The influence of animals on the formation of the personality of Mowgli in the «Book of the Jungle» is shown as the most favorable, which can not be said about the influence of people possessed by the thirst for profit: Mowgli was amazed that six people killed each other in a short time because of the precious anchor. Mowgli killed only on the hunt to satisfy his hunger, and he was amazed that people can kill themselves only from greed, the desire to get rich. The implicit author here is formed from the narrator, who admires Mowgli and his best friends (Balu, Bagheera, Kaa), the bearers of good, love, justice, that is, that Mowgli did not find people in society. In the «Book of the Jungle» people are more likely to be predators than wild inhabitants of the jungle. Therefore Mowgli does not use the words «animals», «beasts», and calls them «the people of the jungle». And although their ways were dispersed Mowgli forever retained in the soul of love and respect for his friends, educators. Mowgli could always find support in difficult times. Explanations of love for him, «Frog», for «the people of the jungle» – these are not empty words. Kipling, embodying animals, giving them the ability to speak and think in a human way, involuntarily set them as an example to people. Although the writer objectively showed his outcasts in the animal kingdom (Sher-Khan, red dogs), who received their deserts for their meanness. Mowgli was the bearer and guardian of the laws of good and justice in the jungle, who recognized him as their ruler. In the fairy tales of Mamin-Sibiriak, the implicit author-narrator has a multifunctional meaning. Thus, for example, in the Tale of the Brave Hare – long ears, slanting eyes, short tail, and the narrator begins the narrative as a prose tale: «A bunny was born in the forest and all was afraid». And this fairy tale ends with the words: «Bayu-Baia-Bai…» Such a deliberate mixture of genres emphasizes the ambiguity of the content, the set of goals pursued by the implicit author: educate, entertain, lull. It is with this goal in mind that the main element of the lullaby is wedged into the prose narrative. This also emphasizes the real purpose of this work. Mamin-Sibiryak, like Kipling, in every possible way emphasizes his connection with his little readers. The implicit author therefore is, first of all, a symbol of communication with the children’s audience, serving her with interest, taking into account the possibilities of age-specific features of perception. Mamin-Sibiryak actively and creatively used Russian folklore, experimented with traditions, filling the genre of the fairy tale with a new meaning: «First and foremost, a single motif pervades the tale – it bothered to be afraid», «tired of hiding». The conditional world of hares and wolves make parables the strong relationship between the weak and the strong in the world and the vulnerability of those who hold the weak in fear. «The implicit author of Mamin-Sibiryak and Kipling – is on the side of good. Both writers created a similar image of an implicit author, defending the weak and punishing evil in the face of negative characters – villains. This setting is consistent with the principles of folk tales, proclaiming the triumph of kindness and nobility. And all together, this creates a special atmosphere of optimism, the ineradicable joy of being inherent in childhood. Moreover: «Compositional transparency and stylistic clarity of works help Mamin-Sibiryak, without reducing ideological acuity, educating in children love for the motherland, for the people – a worker». This is the national originality of the fairy tales of Mamin – Sibiryak. In Skazochke pro Kozyavochka, the implicit author simultaneously laughs at the narcissistic Kozyavochka, the proprietor who ascribes to himself the possession of the whole world, and also enjoys with her the life, beauty of nature and the immortality of life on earth. The peculiarity of this tale lies in such an unusual combination of the author’s diverse attitude to the subject of the image. In «The Tale of Komar Komarovich – a long nose and a furry Misha – a short tail», too, the traditional form of a fairy tale is preserved, not diluted. Unusual are only the threats of the tiny Komar Komarovich directed towards the giant bear: «I’ll eat you», and most importantly – the victory of the little one over the big one. The author comments on this outcome and explains it with the courage and perseverance of a tiny mosquito. Here the size does not matter, because the main advantage of the main character is not physical strength, but perseverance and will to win. After the death of his second wife Mamin-Sibiryak alone brought up his beloved daughter Alyonushka, whom he became both father and mother. The writer lived the interests of his child. And when she fell ill, specially for her composed fairy tales, which subsequently published: «Preschool children are addressed to» Alenushkin’s tales, over which Mamin-Sibiryak worked from 1894 to 1897. They are works of genuine children’s literature. This is a humanistic book, in which moral and social ideas are organically combined. Allegory of fairy tales is associated with the transfer of social phenomena in the world of birds, animals, fish. «In addition, these tales are full of true love for their little reader. This strong feeling is felt also in the implicit author, who is here a structural, organizing principle along with a narrator who loves his readers – a loving father, whose love and care is especially needed by the children. These tales for children are the father’s love and attention realized in the artistic word. In the «Tale of Sparrow Vorobeich, Ersh Ershovich and merry chimney sweep Yashu» implicit author has an interesting narrative principle: in addition to the main narrator – an adult who told about funny adventures of the main characters, there appears the image of Alenushka, to whom this fairy tale is intended. Alyonushka brought a lively stream into the narrative, outlining her point of view on what was going on, and her own principle of distributing apples: she took more for herself than she gave to Pope and Liza. About who Lisa is, nothing is said at all. But the author here showed the peculiarity of the attitude of children to the world around: children believe that everyone should know those whom they know, so it is not necessary to describe all of their friends. Therefore, for other readers, the social, marital status and age of Lisa remained a mystery. It’s just the one who was deprived of apples. In this context, only this is of great importance for children. An implicit author in children’s works should always reflect the child’s worldview, the problems that concern them. At Mamin-Sibiryak, this is especially pronounced in his tales. In the «Tale of how lived – was the last Fly» implicit author has a complex structure, consisting not only of the narrator, but also of the characters about which Mukha has his opinion. For example, Aunt Olya: «Oh, this wonderful woman, it seems, lived only for flies…» And the most obvious confirmation of this was for Mucha: «Then Aunt Olya noticed that flies very much like sugar and berries, so she started every day Cook berries in sugar. The flies now, of course, guessed what for all this is done, and climbed out of gratitude directly into the basin with jam. Alyonushka also liked jam very much, but Aunt Olya gave her only one or two spoons, not wanting to offend the flies. « Papa Mucha considered «a strange lord», poisoning their lives. With Mamina-Sibiryak’s peculiar humor, the author describes Miaha’s misadventures, who considered themselves as the center of the universe, the mistress of life. It is the insects in the fairy tales of Mamin-Sibiryak that are the object of the author’s ridicule due to his ambitions and overestimated self-esteem. But this turmoil suffers and turkey in the fairy tale «Cleverer than all». Being exposed in his stupidity and ignorance, turkey continues to insist that he is the cleverest of all. And for this purpose he shows a fair amount of resourcefulness, trying to get out of the unfavorable situation for him, turning everything into a joke. But the greatest confirmation of his stupidity is precisely his persistence in asserting that he is the most intelligent. The writer thereby clearly demonstrates that the mind and bragging are incompatible; they do not get along together. In the fairy tale «Gray neck» the implicit author is connected not only with the main narrative, but also with the secondary ones: the parents of the wounded duck who threw her to death, as well as with the hare and the old man who became her friends. As always in the fairy tales of Mamin-Sibiryak, the implicit author is kind and fair, he is on the side of the offended and the weak. Thus, the implicit author in the tales of Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak has a number of similarities and differences based on the ideological, artistic and national originality of these writers. Kipling and Mamin-Sibiryak used a vast arsenal of stylistic means of imaging. They both actively and creatively used folklore traditions, but at the same time contributed to their tales a unique author’s color, based on the brightest talents. These writers are rightfully considered worthy representatives of their national literatures, the pride of their peoples.

Literature
1. Венгерова З. А.  Редьярд Киплинг. Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона в 86 т. (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб, 1890–1907.
2. Хозиева С. И. Русские писатели и поэты. Краткий биографический словарь. М.: Рипол-классик, 2000.
3. http://www.skazka.com.ru/articles
4. https://deti-online.com/skazki/skazki-mamina-sibirjaka

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