professor of philosophy science
Razia BULEKBAYEVA ,
В данной статье, основываясь на трудах выдающихся отечественных и зарубежных тюркологов, раскрывается вклад тюрков в мировую культуру и цивилизацию. В работе обосновывается мысль, что тюрки не только внесли свой вклад в мировую сокровищницу, но и задали стартовые условия развития другим цивилизациям, в первую очередь, европейской и российской.
In the Eurasian continent the original unique and most powerful civilization which earlier was less-known not only for the wide public, but also in scientific spaces in due time has been created. Only after independence when it began possible to dump eurocentime, only after opening of wide access foreign Turkics to researches, only after recent sensational opening of social scientists of the Central Asia and Eurasia, began possible to speak about the real contribution of Turks to a world treasury. We told about separate achievements of Turks in article published in materials conference «Falsafa va fanlar metodologiyasi muommolari» to the devoted memory of Amanully Faizullaev. However the similar materials opened the contribution of Turks in world culture and civilization, at present while it is not enough. Very many concerning Turkic component in world cultures it is not fully estimated. Many it «annalistic pages», that is real achievements of Turks in many areas remain till now unread. The more full and all-round its real history today is studied, the it becomes clearer and more convincing its role in world history, culture and civilization. In our opinion, Prototurks and Turks not only won enormous territories and created huge empires, but also have reserved great culture and civilization which, at last, should be thoroughly studied, in a due measure is estimated and presented the wide public. In this plan before scientists-social scientists the layer lies huge historical, cultural-civilizational, which should be lifted and mastered to meet at least in a certain measure this lack in social study. Giving this article, we would like to warn readers that we are not historians. We are philosophers. We don’t apply that we on the basis of the independent analysis have revealed this or that opening of Turks in this or that area of human activity. We only in the certain system form try to transfer or, more precisely, to show on the basis of again opened for the wide public historical and Tukological materials, the contribution of Turks to world culture and civilization. Many these materials were and for us shocking opening as they weren’t entered in our settled representations, received within the limits of traditional history. In our opinion, being based on the newest opening of modern social study, it is necessary not only to write and speak about the huge contribution of Prototurks and Turks to world history, but also it is necessary to create the new concept of history and culture of the Turkic people on its basis. In our opinion, all-important, especially in the context of patriotic education of youth of Kazakhstan to intertwine with this knowledge in a context of all education and educational system at all. We should know the present history, history which originates from Prototurks. Marking this moment, the outstanding scientist-turkologist and public figure S. Maksudi in 1917 spoke: «Our ancestors have created a great civilization. Such cultural potential as in the Turkic people, isn’t present in any other people. We can confirm it before the whole world».
The facts testifying to it a large quantity. We spoke about some in the previous article. For great persuasiveness and prove our thesis we result arguments of outstanding scientists of the West. For example, the French anthropologist Levi – Strossa whom denying position that only Europe has brought the contribution to a world civilization, writes: “All scientific and industrial revolution of the West finds room in the period equal to half of thousand share of life, lived mankind. It calls into question itself criterion, on which is estimated cultural contribution of this or that civilization: “Two – three centuries ago the western civilization has devoted itself to to supply the person more and more powerful mechanical tools. If accept it for criterion the indicator of development level a human society uses energy per capita. The western civilization in American essence of embodiment will be at the head… If for criterion to take ability working over extreme geographical conditions, undoubtedly, the palm tree of superiority will be received by Eskimos and Bedouins. Better any other civilizations India has managed to work out philosophical-religious system, and China – the style of life, capable to compensate psychological consequences of demographic stress. Already three centuries ago Islam formulated the theory of solidarity for all form of human life – technical, economic, social and spiritual – what West couldn’t find to recent time. Further Levi-Stpossa says that distances I will sink down Turks, in particular Yakuts. In his opinion, it is rare case cumulative, undivided (up to European intervention) technological development in history. “For this period [15-20 thousand years with the time of transmitting over Beringov island in America] these people demonstrated one of the most inconceivable cases cumulative history in the world: having investigated from north to southern extremity resources of new natural environment, having cultivated whole range of most diversified kinds of animals and greens for the food, drugs and poisons and even – the fact, which it was not observed anywhere more – transferring poisonous substances, as a cassava, basically food, and other stimulations or anesthesias; systemizing poisons and slipping pill connections depending on kinds of animals, on which they have selective an effect, and, at last, having finished by technologies, as weaving, ceramics and processing precious metals to the level of enhancing. To estimate this enormous labor, there is enough to determine the contribution of Americans to civilizations of Stapogo Mipa. Firstly, potato, rubber, tobacco and cocaine (a basis of modern anesthesias), which though and in different senses, making four support the western civilization; corn and peanut, that revolutionized African economy even before widely have been included in a power supply system of Europe; cocoa, vanilla, tomato, pineapple, red pepper, kinds of bean, vegetables and clap. At last, the concept of zero, a basis of arithmetic of modern mathematicians was known and used at the Maya at least five hundred years before invention by Indian wise man from whom Europe has learned with the help of Arabs. Therefore probably, the calendar at the epoch of Maya was more exact, than in Stapom Mipe to determine whether was political regime of monks or socialists could be totalitarian, it has been used up to “sea of ink”. Anyway, this regime was expressed through the most modern formulas and for some centuries identified European phenomena of the same type “.
Very important data on the military man art of Turkic peoples were left also by known traveler Marco Polo which, in his opinion, consisted in the following:
1) In psychological preparation for fight. Tatars by means of inspiring speech to armies, silent songs and music on the two-string tools, encouraging sounds of a drum prepare for fight. Thus, they created a psychological spirit to fight, battle.
2) Good organization of investigation. On all four parties of the army, sent beforehand: «When it is a question behind any business on plains or on mountains, in two days before that two hundred people of scouts, as much are sent forward back and so far as on both parties, that is wherever one wishes, and it becomes accidentally who didn’t attack. Subsequently Russian generals will diligently copy these tactical receptions of Turkic peoples from German: rear guard, vanguard, fighting patrol.
3) So-called “steppe tactics“. To escape from the enemy aren’t ashamed, escaping, turn and shoot. The horses accustomed, as dogs, to move extensively, and the enemy thinks that they are upset and won, and itself loses, because that horses at it are shot down and people is fairly interrupted. Tatars as will see that interrupted enemy horses, and there is a lot of people, turn back and fight strongly, bravely, ruin and win the enemy”
4) Structure of armies. Armies of step people which much seemed shapeless darkness had an accurate structure. At the heart of the structure of army figure 10 lays: “Hundred thousand are tuks, ten thousand – tomans, one thousand…, one hundred…, ten…” It turned out that each soldier submits to the commander, and in fight is under control of a sotnik (one hundred), tysyachnik (one thousand), tomnik (temnik). From here a strict, cast-iron discipline, high responsibility of each soldier for the action in fight. By the way, the emperor has this principle of a structure of armies already to the Fashion and Genghis Khan. It still remained at many armies, including at the Russian.
5) Attack “. The essence – not to approach with the enemy, in a long distance to beat out of operation equipment and to destroy as much as possible people. As an example of military art of Turkic peoples Tamerlan’s counter-measure against the unexpected weapon for it applied against it by Hindus can serve. As it is known during its campaign to India, about Delhi, battle its first battle took place. In the first day of battle against Tamerlan’s armies started up about sixty unprecedented animals on the power – fighting elephants. It was so unexpected and awful that Tamerlan suffered defeat in the first day. By the way, as well as Alexander the Great in due time. Then Timur resorted to reciprocal, so unexpected and awful means camels for the opponent. And it is not simple to camels, and to flaring. They adhered behind to camels straw and set fire. Having seen the huge steppe animals embraced with a flame, elephants left and suppressed the army. This battle of camels against elephants is described by Tamerlan’s contemporarists – the Spanish ambassador in Samarkand Ruy Gonsalez de Klavikho in his diary.
Even the unpretentiousness of the soldier having sometimes crucial importance for a victory, Marco Polo notes: «There will be a need so skip, will tell to you, days ten without food, without planting some fire. In this case the equipment even for rest is facilitated to a limit: «Carry also small tent to take cover on a rain case». Even the provisions of the Turkic soldier draw attention of the Italian: «There is at them still powdered milk, dense as dough, carries it with itself: will put in water and disturb until it will be dismissed, then drink». Apparently, powdered milk about which speaks to Marco Polo there is ours «kurt». To words of the Italian traveler it is possible to add the following. First, at Turkic war always in a stock was one or two horses that were used at fatigue of one or falling. Secondly, in a bag on Kazakh always were kurts and a horse-flesh which it ate at a stop or a halt. Horse-flesh possesses powerful power force which quickly restores forces and gives big energy. Present and compare, you ate some pieces of a horse-flesh or ate bread with potato or cabbage. Try on potato and cabbage in the winter in bitter cold not only to win other people, but even to go on far distance. According to scientists, a secret of that Turkic person in the winter and in the summer quickly covered in the gains huge spaces and distances and appeared unexpectedly for the opponents, also consisted and in their image of food.
The most important achievement of Turkic peoples it is possible to consider creations of the richest language by them. Raphael Mukhammetdinov writes: «From the point of view of wealth of semantic roots, Turkic language — one of the richest languages of the world. In this plan any of the European languages can’t be compared to Turkic language at all. For today in German which as a result of conscious and purposeful work of experts became one of the richest languages of the world, in total there are about 900 roots of words. All other words are derivative of these roots. Meanwhile in Turkic language together with roots of already forgotten and out-of-date words about 8000 independent lexical units are gathered. If these language treasures are clearly processed, as it was made other nations, Turkic language will be one of the richest languages of the world». Besides that lexicon and grammar of the Altay languages unlike many languages are stable as mathematical formulas and in them there are no every possible grammatical exception.
According to Sadri Maksudi, creation and development of language of prototurk peoples reflects, no doubt, the level of their material culture developed in comparison with another communities and the society organizations. Possibly, prototurk peoples first-ever mastered mass cattle breeding and nomadic way of life with use of the cultivated horse. These, the revolutionary skills allowed prototurk people of a message very dynamic way of life, to supervise enormous territories to own information on these territories and to collect from them enormous material values.
Non-Turkic scientists speak about high development of language of ancient Turkic people also. For example, known turkologist Ernst Doblkhofer wrote: “Again opened (the Turkic – the author means.) writing with rich differentiation of signs (38) is much better adapted in order that it is reliable to transmit phonetic sounds of ancient-turkic language, than the Uigur letter with its 20 letters which by 800 completely forced out writing of ancient Turkic people”.
The Turkic runic letter totaled 38 graphic signs designating both concordant, and vowel sounds. Many concordats have from two to five options of writing, depending on with what to vowels this concordant is used. The text registered generally from right to left. Words in the letter from each other separated a colon. This find of Turkic writing was in science on so stunning with sensation that Ernst Doblkhofer sincerely writes: “They, occur from the area which was for all western cultures “other world”, from the heart of Asia, and belong to the people about which we absolutely knew nothing long time and now still we know very little, – that is why they and are of interest.
Tatar-mongols on Volga, according to M. Barmankulov, spoke on kypchaks for this language was common, had writing, bore cultural realities in book type words, in clothes — the yapancha type, in a financial system — «money» and “three-cents piece”, in mail and communication organization — “yamstvo”. Here only a few words which were presented by Turkic people to Slavs to Tatars and during their yoke: cherry, Cossack, treasury, treasurer, booth, tobacco pouch, barrow, cradle, aftermath, center, sealing wax, goods, shawl, wide trousers, label, sofa, trap, hovel, horse, earring, iron, brick, pocket, stocking, heel, bustard, waistcoat, boot, hop, caftan, shako, oil, arshin.
To number of forgotten and not estimated for a variety of causes it is possible to consider a contribution of Turkic shamans to medicine. The real judgment of the last comes only today. Kenneth Medouz in the book «Ancient wisdom of shamans» says that from the point of view of knowledge of anatomy, physiology and treatment of the person shamans were and are at very high level, isn’t worse nearly, than Chinese or Tibetan. As the proof he gives medical representations of the Tuva shamans. According to the scientists, Tuva (not only Tuva) shamans consider as the most important problem of the medicine of awakening and activization of the power centers located in a power system of the person which usually aren’t used and are in a dozing condition. These power centers we scoop vital energy from space “tank” in which we exist. Shamans consider that if the person correctly carries out breath, it increase a stock of vital energy of the power system. This special energy arrives from space “tank” together with breath in many respects the same as fish absorbs oxygen from water. It extends on a physical and power body through the power centers similar to saucers radio “bodies”, usually called by charkas. This Sanskrit word is translated as “wheel” or “funnel”. Charkas not in a physical body and in a power body surrounding it are located. Charkas are responsible for absorption of vital force, processing of energy and its distribution in a physical body through nervous and endocrine systems. According to the Tuva shamans at the person of 10 charkas. In the Indian medicine, as we know, 7 charkas. By the way, there is an assumption that concept of “charkas” there was from the ancient-turkic word “chukr”, that is a pole or a funnel. Feature of representations of Turkic shamans about charkas that if in the Indian medicine charkas begin with a tailbone and come to an end in the head, at shamans they begin below a sole and come to an end above the head. These power centers overwork and distribute vital energy in a physical body through endocrine glands, and also through sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The medicine of Turkic shamans has the developed system of the treatment, based on a power system of the person and is dated much earlier term of the emergence. Here means that the shamanizm arose thirty thousand years ago, and the Chinese and Indian civilization ten years ago.
In our opinion, the cyclic calendar of nomads isn’t up to the end understood and estimated after October revolution. Kazakhs call this calendar as “mushel”. It is based on knowledge of movement of heavenly bodies.
Conclusive advantage of this cyclic calendar was that the knowledge of a cycle of 12-year climate changes connected with influence of Jupiter, and also fluctuations of solar activity allowed to expect weather for many years forward and, speaking to language of modern science, respectively to plan long-term strategy of housekeeping and to regulate a long-term production cycle. Floodlight makes a complete revolution round the Sun in 12 years and as the major planet of solar system having own radiation, essentially influences annual climate changes of Earth. Each 12 year these changes repeat, but with options. The alternativeness corresponds with a lunar, solar, saturn cycle, together with ten years’, as is reflected in changing color symbolic of animals… And in 60 years everything repeats at first and with options too. Kazakhs, as well as all Central Asian nomads, well knew that bears with itself every year — how many moisture and winds, a grass and sunny days, thaw and colds. They knew years, safe for the hard production — cow, leopard, snack, horse, and years not safe — mouse, monkey, pock etc. But year of indispensable jutes which were especially heavy every 36 years was especially dangerous.
The cycle forms of 12 dual units hours days, the cycle from 30 days forms month, the cycle from 12 months forms year, the cycle from 12 years forms mushel, the cycle from 5 mushely forms a 60-year circle called — full mushel, which itself, in turn, infinitely repeats.
Life of the certain person is subordinated to circles of time also. Human life is a chain mushely — twelvely. At each person in 12 years comes mushel year — age of mushel, the transition period, being accompanied instability, and at times and temporary deterioration of health, under the similarity law generating also psychological and social difficulties. It is the 13th, the 25th, the 37th, the 49th, the 61st, the 73rd etc. the years of life demanding special attention, discretion, care. These year of mushels coincide with the periods of reorganizations of hormonal system of the person known to modern medicine, for the period of deducing an organism and mentality from a condition of stable equilibrium. 13 years — the puberty period, 25 years — the termination of development of a hormone of growth, the end of physical youth, 37 years — the known period of psychological crises because of what he is called the American scientists «shadow line of human life», 49 years — switching off of function of reproduction.
The Kazakh always should know the family tree, always know the ancestors to the seventh knee (generation), differently it was possible to pass for the ignoramus and the ill-bred person. Knowledge of seven knees of the relationship in this case, a factor not only historical and ethnographic, but also biological which, on the one hand, promoted, to collecting data in steppes, with another – to search of ways for creation of an ekzogam family (An ekzogam — a ban of the marriage relations with the relatives having one general ancestor — to the seventh generation). Under the law of «Zhety zhargy» the blood relatives who have broken this situation, indulged in death. It was, first of all, care of healthy and strong posterity.
According to the Uzbek uly, fastening of this taboo, effectively provided self-preservation of ethnos from incest, promoted formation of healthy posterity which provided safety and territorial integrity of the huge Kazakh state.
By the way, the West to understanding of necessity ekzogam interdictions has approached only to the nineteenth century end. It happens only after when the given geneticists and medicine, have convincingly shown that incest leads to increase of hereditary defects in the hundredfold size. (This theory originates from Gregor Mendel’s (1821-1884) which have been carried out still in the sixties of last century the experiences, but explained only nearby 1900 (Korrens, Chermak, the Frieze). Nomads knew these hereditary features of a human body many centuries earlier.
In a context of the contribution of Turkis in a political science it is possible to tell as well the following that it, appears, possessed a number of such lines and advantages which allows to say that many modern civilizations only revives the Turkic nomadic civilization, a traditional system of nomadic democracy. According to philosopher N.Amrekulova, a traditional system of nomadic democracy possessed following features:
1) steppe nomadic democracy from great Hunnus to Ablai Khan.
2) the uniform Law for all.
Strong Parliament (and it isn’t present). – Council of Bis and Batyrs at the Khan-governor.
3) Council selected the Khan from Chingiz blood and could express it a vote of no confidence idle time of nomads and transition under aegis of other sultan or the Khan,
4) for a far away the Khan from all zhuzes and clans which was provided with the power of Chingiz blood, according to the late tradition, Kazakh sorts not entering into system and tribes,
5) Along with this national power of Chingiz blood not less strong national braces are a spiritual power the Skin (descendants of Muhammad) and people voice – Zhyrau (steppe bards), and also military elite – batyrs and alien tolengits (analog of soldiers-mamluks).
6) Real force of Places (soldiers, the weapon, horses – all was in hands of heads of sorts and tribes) in the form of Meeting of bis and batyrs, rich and, at last, – ordinary soldiers as a counterbalance of is only administrative-political power of the federal Center, leaning only on Khan guards and taxes.
7) a principle of “board of the best», i.e. a choice and election as the khan
Best of sultans (brought up by centuries in the spirit of estate-dynasty service of Chingiz blood), natural nomination thanks to personal advantages Batyrs, wise Biev and judges etc.
8) “Khan-talau” (time of personal property of the khan, stimulating it on gains) and Khan’s dessiatina (10) a legal part of the general spoils of war (as a way of association of personal interests of the khan and the people) etc.
9) the Kagan principle of unity of ethics and a policy (it was strictly observed in personnel selection by Chingizhanom etc.), honesty, decency and moderation, and Kanagat.
10) Minimum state and taxes. So, the nomadic population paid a tax kopchur – 1 % from a cattle livestock in a year. The heaviest tax (it was raised from settled population of the dependent countries) – didn’t exceed 5 %-10 % from property cost a year.
The all-important party of a nomadic civilization, undoubtedly, the legal sphere of the Kazakh society which, no doubt, according to many researchers, has the huge universal and humanistic contents is.
Force, wisdom, vitality of a common law of Kazakhs was that in it the eminence of moral criteria in behavior of the individual was the fundamental beginning in right regulatory function. That is the morals in a common law of Kazakhs were higher than the right. From here infringement of the moral values which have developed by eyelids appears very dangerous antisocial conduct, even a crime loosening firm bases, valuable reference points of a nomadic civilization of Kazakhs. For this reason social practice of nomadic society above all benefits put magic force of conscience which is fixed as a formula, an axiom in many proverbs: life I endow ad honores “,” a hare can kill and the cane rustle, and the hero perishes for the honor” etc.
Secondly, the nomadic right of Kazakhs in a standard order fixes collective mutual aid in the form of separate institutes; neibourhood, relativehood, hospitability etc., providing well-being, prosperity, equitable distribution of wealth, the protective mechanism of society from a heavy environment.
Thirdly, obligatory attribute of nomadic sense of justice is declaration of a principle of patrimonial responsibility for perfect crimes the member of a community. Therefore the sort also is materially responsible for any offenses of the individual morally.
Fourthly, the nomadic right of Kazakhs the sanctions don’t contain, the people at large directed on direct intimidation, in punishment system priority value belonged, generally to property composition, i.e. compensation of causal harm to the person paid by guilty or his members of a sort. The system of the right of nomads doesn’t know such types of the qualified criminal punishments as burning, cutting of interiors, cutting off of parts of a body, an instillation alive, sazhany on a stake etc., the blood feud and a principle талиона didn’t receive the end.
Fifthly, the most important principle of the right is fixing of an ekzogam taboo which effectively provided ethnos self-preservation from incest, promoted formation of healthy posterity which provided safety and territorial integrity of the huge Kazakh state.
As clearly it is visible from the analysis of the basic principles of the nomadic right a moral component in system of the right not only it is twisted, but also moreover costs above the right. This essential difference of the nomadic right from European where the right has tool character. In the European state and the right the ethical component is generally lost.
The etiquette of hospitality which became an embodiment of generosity and generosity of the Kazakh has harmonous, peculiar system of moral rules of behavior. The traditional hospitality imparted from early age, is a considerable educational tool at children of respect to native, to neighbors and relatives, in general, to people familiar and unfamiliar — it is a humanity indicator.
Probably, sources of tolerance and humanity of the Kazakh people which during difficult time for itself could accept, feed and warm in pre-war, military and post-war years of ten the people repatriated to Kazakhstan here lie. Exactly spiritual preconditions for creation of «The Kazakhstan model of an interethnic consent», being a sample for many people here lie.
According to Kalybayeva A., Kazakhs have a hospitality – the custom originating from an extreme antiquity, acts as a certain moral and ethical complex, and reception of the guest is developed as the ritualizirovanny action having a set of functions.
Hospitality manifestation at Kazakhs highly ritualizirovano, but isn’t something absolutely exclusive and finds a set of parallels, in particular, at the tyurko-Mongolian people of the Central and Central Asia.
However feature of the Kazakh hospitality was that it unlike other people had a legal basis. That is at Kazakhs custom of hospitality in a legislative order it was authorized on the Kazakh common law. The essence of this legal institute consisted in the following: the owner of a tilt cart was obliged with all honors and respect to meet any traveler, irrespective of number of people, it accompanying, and as far as possible to provide with it rest and a free food. Usually visitors said such words: “Guest from God”, i.e. the guest from God”.
In case of refusal in reception of the traveler of norm of a common law provided the sanction in the form of a penalty “at-tone” which was assigned to the respondent, i.e. to a duty of the respondent to give a horse and a dressing gown. Besides, guilty persons were strictly condemned for default of customs of hospitality by relatives and odnoaulets as observance of this custom was extremely important. Each nomad could get to a difficult life experience.
The called institute the roots leaves in depth of centuries. About its origin there is a legend according to which, Alash – the ancestor of the Kazakh people — had three sons. At the end of the life it, having divided the property not on three sons, and on four told: “Here to you my eternal precept: don’t take at mutual your visit to each other constantly as though invited guests, use, thus, each other the right-experts, or a gratuitous free shelter and an entertainment — on what accept from me still the fourth share which has remained with me of my property and consider it not so only which – or from you as a property, and the general property and as though undivided between you on eyelids of centuries”.
Apparently from the foregoing, the contribution of Turkic peoples to a world civilization and culture, no doubt, is really huge. Therefore he by right deserves more thorough and deeper studying. It is very important, that about it knew not only narrow scientific community, but also all other world. In our opinion, such approach to our history will allow to make the main thing — systematically and positively to influence public consciousness, to impart youth those simple and at the same time great values which the mankind has: love to the homeland, pride of it, attentive and careful attitude to the history, to the culture and, certainly, responsibility for the future of the country. And it means, we will grow up the real citizens and patriots of the country who and in word and deed prove it.
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